Situational Analysis in Hospital and Medical Care Planning

situational analysis

Situational Analysis

The first step of the planning spiral. It involves an assessment of the present situation.
Key Contents of situational analysis

Population characteristics:

1. Demographic information

  • Size, age and sex distribution to estimates health services.
  • Population growth (high vs. nominal, child health vs. geriatric).
  • Baseline information (morbidity, mortality, service utilization)
  • This information is important due to supply side because healthcare is labor intensive and need of rapid production and supply of human resources

2.Religious, educational and cultural characteristics

3. Physical and socio-economic characteristics:

  • Geographical and topographical situation
  • Infrastructure
  • Transportation modes and route.
  • Communications
  • Water supplies and sanitation facilities.
  • Utilities including distribution of electricity.
  • Socio-economic situation.
  • Public and private sector structure.

4. Policy and political environment

  • Overall national policies.
  • Existing health policies.
  • Political environment 

5. Health Need 

  • Medical perceived health needs.
  • Community perceived health needs 

6. Non-health sector: plans and services provided

  • Education.
  • Water and sanitation.
  • Agriculture.
  • Community development.
  • Public works.
  • Industrial and mining sectors.

7. Health services

1. Service facilities.
Community to tertiary
Environmental services
2. Service utilization (consult initial chapter about utilization indices)
3. Service gaps
  • Areas not covered (eg. Diabetes, geriatric care)
  • New health needs
  • Changed expectations
  • Changes in service standards
4. Health service organizational arrangements.


1. Financial
  • Present and likely future capital and recurrent budget for the public sector services.
  • Present and likely future expenditure in other parts of the health sector.
  • Constraints in spending such as foreign exchange shortage.
  • Projected inflation rates
2. Personnel
  • Number in total.
  • Employed exactly.
  • Projected output from training.
  • Projected loses from the service.
  • Current and projected gaps in staff.
3. Building, land, equipment and vehicles
4. Other supplies.
  • Medical like drugs and non-medical (machinery, spare parts, supportive goods and services)

Who should carry out the situational analysis?

  • Health professional and service managers.
  • Representatives of other sectors related to health sector.
  • Community representatives.

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